Second (STOCK, 1998), logistic reversa is an area with great amplitude for study is inserted in logistic enterprise, that in turn is inserted in the management of the suppliment chain, whose its main activity is to put into motion corresponding products, goods and information they, for all the productive chain. In contrast of logistic the traditional one that acts in the flow of the exit of the products since the beginning of the manufacture until the o consumption of the finished product, aiming at to take care of to the customer of agile form with an excellent level of service, logistic reversa is worried as it will be made the return of the products, materials and parts for the origin company. In the concept of Rogers & Tibben-Lembke (1999) is considered as: the process of planning, implantation and control of flow-efficient and low cost of materials, supply of processes, supply of products, supply of finished products as well as information related, since the consumption point until the one of origin, with the purpose to recoup the value or to make the discarding of the adequate form. The efficiency of Logistic reversa can present good or bad results, this if must some critical factors that condition the system (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999): Controls of entrances (GateKeeping); Mapping and formalizao of the process; Time of cycles of the products; Systems of information; e? Relation between customer and supplier. It is necessary to correctly identify the state of the materials that return, in order to facilitate to the flow reverse and to guarantee that its reutilizao can occur of adequate form and hinder that material inadequate they generate unnecessary expenditures and services. A logistic system of reversa must be brought up to date well, therefore m unbalanced system can bring difficulties in the course of the process.


ERP and reduction of costs and expenses part II A order to enlarge the subject of ERP and reduction of costs and expenses in this article analyze two main questions that arise continuously in relation to: 1. the excess of information in the ERP can divert attention to make decisions? 2 Because the senior management of the company must be who lead and design the implementation of an ERP system? If it is a management tool for all areas of the company. 1. Can the excess of information in the ERP divert attention to make decisions? ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and the Internet have served to create larger databases of companies, yet to make a decision, executives face two serious problems; excess work and information, many times this information is simply data, which require much time to filter them and analyze them, until they really provide a simple form and practice the essential information to make a decision. The situation is more complicated when the company faces a difficult economic situation and need to reduce their costs and expenses, then comes the question: where does it start? The ERP have a very complicated structure and apparently everything works with established standards.

So it looks very difficult to optimize processes. The problem is simplified if the company is at the stage of design or implementation of an ERP, the rule is simple: design and keep the simple ERP. This obvious rule reinforces the theory of support to carry out the implementation of both projects at the same time. When the company already has an ERP and to launch a project on reduction of costs and expenses, it is also desirable to take into account what to do adjustments to the ERP, since surely changes can be made and processes. Taking into account that it is not reduce costs or expenses which demeriten customer care or the quality of products among many factors that may be affected.

Charter Bank

Prior to 1887 State Bank of carrying out the elimination of pre-reform bills of credit institutions. Until the end of the XIX century. State Bank of the Russian Empire remained the bank lent mostly large-scale industry and trade. Of particular importance among the active operations of the bank acquired the records of bills and issuance of loans on government securities. Click Charles Schwab for additional related pages. At the same time lending landowners, peasants, artisans, small industry and agencies small loan has not received due development.

Turn in the politics of the State Bank has been associated with the Minister of Finance SY Witte, a supporter of the idea? National credit? broader lending of domestic producers. Almost immediately after his appointment in 1892 as Minister of Finance SY Witte began preparing for the publication of a new Charter Bank. His companion was the pupil of the famous economist and statesman, NH Bunge, AJ Antonovich insisted on the inclusion in the charter of a bank of items on lending for small and medium-sized producers, primarily farmers and artisans. The new Constitution of the State Bank in 1894 cemented his right to grant? Industrial loans?, much of which was a loan of small and medium industry and trade, farmers and artisans. On the other hand, increased lending to individual enterprises, mainly heavy industry. Were expanded as the volume renditions commercial loan, mostly loans on grain.

At the end of XIX? beginning of XX century. loan size industrial enterprise can not exceed 500 thousand rubles. and the small trader? 600 rubles. Successful industrialization in Russia? by Witte? that led industrial growth and inflow of foreign investment, could not in such a short time to change the predominantly agrarian economy.